Panel 2 Details

Development, Equality, and Inclusivity


Michel Max Raynaud, Université de Montréal, Canada

Alain Kayinda, UN-Habitat



The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in 2015, highlight the necessity for inclusive and sustainable development, particularly Goal 10: "Reducing inequality within and among countries." Inequality ranges from income inequality to disparities in access to health and education. Global income disparity is becoming increasingly acute; in 2015 the wealth of the sixty-two richest individuals in the world was equal to that of half of the world’s population. Inequality of opportunity also contributes to disparities in areas where mobility and access to services are limited.


Discrimination is a form of exclusion and exacerbates inequality. Discrimination on the basis of group membership -- such as sex, race, disability, sexual orientation, religion, belief, or age -- occurs around the world, where these groups often face prejudice and even violence. Achieving gender equality and empowerment for women and girls is an important facet of Canada’s foreign policy, as women’s employment and poverty-reduction benefits health, educational rates, and overall economic development. Access to education is key to providing women and girls with the tools necessary to actively participate in the public sphere. To address issues of inequality, it is important to understand the degree to which it is experienced and provide supports that enable equal relations and promote inclusivity of diverse populations.


Sub questions:

  • What is the difference between inequality of opportunity and inequality of outcome, which measure best contributes to promoting inclusive development?
  • How does sustainable urban development relate to gender equality and equal access to opportunities?
  • What tools and skills can we provide women across the world to promote inclusive urban development?
  • How should we examine/assess inequality in various regions across the world? What factors need to be addressed in order to understand inequality in a particular region?
  • What forms of governance best promote inclusivity?